A. You made a Disk Backup + incrementals?
B. You did Clean the HDD with Diskpart before the restore?
C. Is the partition style good? GPT in case of UEFI and MBR in case of BIOS system?
D. Can you Explore the backup image? Does the C: drive look good?
Always restore any system or disk backup on a clean disk. Just to be sure there are no leftovers from previous installations. With Windows Diskpart, ran from bootable media, you can Clean the internal disk first.
Question: Did you clone from within the running OS or with bootable media? I once read that it should be done from within the running OS. I was surprised too.
Another option is to backup the disk to an image and restore to the new one. You need a ba…
Yes, with the WinPE bootable media created in the utilities menu. But I think the destination better be another USB disk, but if you have enough space on the USB stick you can try. It should be possible with the Free version.